IGGCAS OpenIR  > 地球与行星物理院重点实验室
Mars: new insights and unresolved questions
Changela, Hitesh G.1,2; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias3,4; Antunes, Andre5; Beaty, David6; Bouw, Kristian7; Bridges, John C.8; Capova, Klara Anna9; Cockell, Charles S.10; Conley, Catharine A.11; Dadachova, Ekaterina12; Dallas, Tiffany D.13; de Mey, Stefaan9; Dong, Chuanfei14,15; Ellery, Alex16; Ferus, Martin17; Foing, Bernard9; Fu, Xiaohui18; Fujita, Kazuhisa19; Lin, Yangting1; Jheeta, Sohan4; Hicks, Leon J.8; Hu, Sen1; Kereszturi, Akos20; Krassakis, Alexandros21; Liu, Yang22; Oberst, Juergen23; Michalski, Joe24; Ranjith, P. M.1; Rinaldi, Teresa25; Rothery, David26; Stavrakakis, Hector A.3; Selbmann, Laura27; Sinha, Rishitosh K.28; Wang, Alian29,30; Williford, Ken6; Vaci, Zoltan2; Vago, Jorge L.9; Waltemathe, Michael31; Hallsworth, John E.13
2021-12-01
Source PublicationINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ASTROBIOLOGY
ISSN1473-5504
Volume20Issue:6Pages:394-426
AbstractMars exploration motivates the search for extraterrestrial life, the development of space technologies, and the design of human missions and habitations. Here, we seek new insights and pose unresolved questions relating to the natural history of Mars, habitability, robotic and human exploration, planetary protection, and the impacts on human society. Key observations and findings include: - high escape rates of early Mars' atmosphere, including loss of water, impact present-day habitability; - putative fossils on Mars will likely be ambiguous biomarkers for life; - microbial contamination resulting from human habitation is unavoidable; and - based on Mars' current planetary protection category, robotic payload(s) should characterize the local martian environment for any life-forms prior to human habitation. Some of the outstanding questions are: - which interpretation of the hemispheric dichotomy of the planet is correct; - to what degree did deep-penetrating faults transport subsurface liquids to Mars' surface; - in what abundance are carbonates formed by atmospheric processes; - what properties of martian meteorites could be used to constrain their source locations; - the origin(s) of organic macromolecules; - was/is Mars inhabited; - how can missions designed to uncover microbial activity in the subsurface eliminate potential false positives caused by microbial contaminants from Earth; - how can we ensure that humans and microbes form a stable and benign biosphere; and - should humans relate to putative extraterrestrial life from a biocentric viewpoint (preservation of all biology), or anthropocentric viewpoint of expanding habitation of space? Studies of Mars' evolution can shed light on the habitability of extrasolar planets. In addition, Mars exploration can drive future policy developments and confirm (or put into question) the feasibility and/or extent of human habitability of space.
KeywordEthics and religion human habitation in situ resource utilization Mars habitability microbial extremophiles planetary protection
DOI10.1017/S1473550421000276
Funding OrganizationNSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council
WOS KeywordSOLAR-WIND INTERACTION ; GALE CRATER ; MERIDIANI-PLANUM ; MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE ; VALLES MARINERIS ; EXOMARS ROVER ; HEMATITE SPHERULES ; SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY ; CARBON-DIOXIDE ; JEZERO CRATER
Language英语
Funding ProjectNSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; Canadian Space Agency[18FASASB13] ; Canadian Space Agency[41750110488] ; Canadian Space Agency[19-03314S] ; Czech Science Foundation ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences'[CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000778] ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences[XDB41000000] ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council
Funding OrganizationNSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; NSFC 'Young International Scientist Award' Grant ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Canadian Space Agency ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; Czech Science Foundation ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; ERDF/ESF `Centre of Advanced Applied Sciences' ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; B-type Strategic Priority Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Space Science Centre of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council ; Space Studies Board of US National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine - Other Topics ; Geology
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics ; Biology ; Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
WOS IDWOS:000790891100002
PublisherCAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iggcas.ac.cn/handle/132A11/105185
Collection地球与行星物理院重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorChangela, Hitesh G.
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geol & Geophys, Key Lab Earth & Planetary Phys, Beijing, Peoples R China
2.Univ New Mexico, Dept Earth & Planetary Sci, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA
3.Natl Tech Univ Athens, Sch Min & Met Engn, Dept Geol Sci, Athens, Greece
4.Network Researchers Chem Evolut Life, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England
5.Macau Univ Sci & Technol MUST, State Key Lab Lunar & Planetary Sci, Taipa, Macau Sar, Peoples R China
6.CALTECH, Mars Program Off, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
7.Not Theory, Creat Div, Miami, FL 33131 USA
8.Univ Leicester, Sch Phys & Astron, Space Res Ctr, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England
9.European Space Agcy HRE ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Human & Robot Explorat, Noordwijk, Netherlands
10.Univ Edinburgh, Sch Phys & Astron, James Clerk Maxwell Bldg,Peter Guthrie Tait Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Midlothian, Scotland
11.NASA, Ames Res Ctr, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA
12.Univ Saskatchewan, Coll Pharm & Nutr, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
13.Queens Univ Belfast, Sch Biol Sci, Inst Global Food Secur, 19 Chlorine Gardens, Belfast BT9 5DL, Antrim, North Ireland
14.Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA
15.Princeton Univ, Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, POB 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA
16.Carleton Univ, Dept Mech & Aerosp Engn, Ottawa, ON, Canada
17.Czech Acad Sci, J Heyrovsky Inst Phys Chem, Prague, Czech Republic
18.Shandong Univ, Inst Space Sci, Weihai, Shandong, Peoples R China
19.Japanese Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, Tokyo, Japan
20.Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Budapest, Hungary
21.Worldwide Business Appl Ltd, GRC Governance Risk & Compliance, Athens, Greece
22.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Space Sci Ctr NSSC, Beijing, Peoples R China
23.DLR Inst Planetary Res, Berlin, Germany
24.Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Beijing, Peoples R China
25.Sapienza Univ Rome, Dept Biol & Biotechnol, Rome, Italy
26.Open Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Milton Keynes, Bucks, England
27.Univ Tuscia, Dept Ecol & Biol Sci, Viterbo, Italy
28.ISRO, Phys Res Lab, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India
29.Washington Univ, Dept Earth & Planetary Sci, St Louis, MO 63130 USA
30.Washington Univ, McDonnell Ctr Space Sci, St Louis, MO 63110 USA
31.Ruhr Univ Bochum, Evangel Theol Fak, Bochum, Germany
First Author AffilicationKey Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Corresponding Author AffilicationKey Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Changela, Hitesh G.,Chatzitheodoridis, Elias,Antunes, Andre,et al. Mars: new insights and unresolved questions[J]. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ASTROBIOLOGY,2021,20(6):394-426.
APA Changela, Hitesh G..,Chatzitheodoridis, Elias.,Antunes, Andre.,Beaty, David.,Bouw, Kristian.,...&Hallsworth, John E..(2021).Mars: new insights and unresolved questions.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ASTROBIOLOGY,20(6),394-426.
MLA Changela, Hitesh G.,et al."Mars: new insights and unresolved questions".INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ASTROBIOLOGY 20.6(2021):394-426.
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