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Basic characteristics, research progresses and prospects of Sn-Ag-base metal metallogenic system
Li ZhenZhen1,2; Qin KeZhang1,2,3; Zhao JunXing1,2; Li GuangMing1,2,3; Su ShiQiang1,2,3
AbstractSn-Ag-base metal deposits are dominantly generated in active continental margins, intracontinental and post-orogenic extensional settings, including southern Bolivia tin belt, Sikhote-Alin belt in the Far East, Russia, southern Great Xing' an Range and Erzgebirge district in Europe. Ore-forming magma mainly comprises shallow felsic volcanic-intrusive rocks, such as rhyodacite-rhyolite, quartz porphyry, granite porphyry, granodiorite porphyry, and shows close spatial and temporal relationships with volcanic rocks and alkali mafic dykes. These ore-related magmas are mainly derived from meta-sedimentary in middle to upper crust, with variable proportions of mantle derived materials. From early to late and from center to periphery, the wallrock alteration include tourmalinization/greisenization, sericitization, illitization and advanced argillization, accompanying the metal assemblages of Sn(-W) -> Zn-Cu-Pb-Sn -> Ag-Pb-Zn-Sb-Sn -> Ag-Sb-Pb. Most tin concentrates in tourmalinization and greisenization zones, while the silver mineralization correlate with the illitization and advanced argillization. The silver-base metal orebodies commonly occur as sheeted steep lodes or veins in shallow level, whereas the tin orebodies not only occur as lodes and breccias, but also as stockwork veinlets or disseminated in wallrocks in deep level. The Sn-Ag-base metal deposits usually contain significant In, Cd and Ga, which are formed during the stage of sulfide mineralization such as sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. Study results on the metal sources show that the meta-sedimentary rocks from middle to upper crust are the dominant tin sources, while the silver sources are still unclear, and sedimentary rocks, mantle and wallrock are the probable candidates. The key factors controlling the formation of ore-forming fluid rich in tin and other metals are low oxygen fugacity and rich-chlorine magma. The earliest fluids often have high saline. Subsequently, the fluids undergo cooling and mixing with meteoric water, and changed from early high saline fluid to late low saline fluid, accompanying the deposition of different metals. The superposition of multiple pulses of metal-rich fluids may play an important role in the formation of large-scale ore deposits. The future research needed to solve several key problems as below: (1) The role of mantle-derived materials in the mineralizing process which may be important sources of heat, sulfur and metals. (2) The relationship between volcanism and mineralization. (3) What is the connection between tin-rich and silver-poor deposits, silver-rich and tin-poor deposits and tin-rich and silver-rich deposits in the same Sn-Ag metallogenic belts? What is the reason of different metal assemblages? The possible answers may need future researches on depth of emplacement, denudation level of the deposit and properties of ore-forming fluids. (4) The origin and coupling mineralization of different metal elements are still unclear. Sn, Ag, In and S may have different sources, and differences also exist on the time of metal entered into fluid and the physical-chemical conditions of metal precipitation. Some improved analysis methods may provide important technical support to solve these problems, such as in-situ compositional analysis of fluid inclusions, in-situ trace elements and isotopic analysis of sulfide minerals and element mapping of minerals. The solving of these problems may help to improve the understand on the Sn-Ag-base metal mineralization process, and provide supports for the exploration of the same type of deposits.
KeywordTin deposit Silver-base metal deposit In mineralization Metal sources Fluid evolution Metal precipitation
WOS Research AreaGeology
WOS SubjectGeology
WOS IDWOS:000491151100003
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorLi ZhenZhen
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geol & Geophys, Key Lab Mineral Resources, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Earth Sci, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China
3.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Earth & Planetary Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
First Author AffilicationKey Laboratory of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences;  Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Corresponding Author AffilicationKey Laboratory of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences;  Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Li ZhenZhen,Qin KeZhang,Zhao JunXing,et al. Basic characteristics, research progresses and prospects of Sn-Ag-base metal metallogenic system[J]. ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA,2019,35(7):1979-1998.
APA Li ZhenZhen,Qin KeZhang,Zhao JunXing,Li GuangMing,&Su ShiQiang.(2019).Basic characteristics, research progresses and prospects of Sn-Ag-base metal metallogenic system.ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA,35(7),1979-1998.
MLA Li ZhenZhen,et al."Basic characteristics, research progresses and prospects of Sn-Ag-base metal metallogenic system".ACTA PETROLOGICA SINICA 35.7(2019):1979-1998.
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