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Thermodynamic Constraints on REE Mineral Paragenesis in the Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe Deposit, China
Liu, Shang1,2; Ding, Lin1,2,3; Fan, Hong-Rui4,5,6
2020-06-01
Source PublicationMINERALS
Volume10Issue:6Pages:21
AbstractHydrothermal processes have played a significant role in rare earth element (REE) precipitation in the Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit. The poor preservation of primary fluid inclusions and superposition or modification by multiphase hydrothermal activities have made identification of physico-chemical conditions of ore-forming fluids extremely difficult. Fortunately, with more and more reliable thermodynamic properties of aqueous REE species and REE minerals reported in recent years, a series of thermodynamic calculations are conducted in this study to provide constraints on REE precipitation in hydrothermal solutions, and provide an explanation of typical paragenesis of REE and gangue minerals at Bayan Obo. During the competition between fluocerite and monazite for LREE in the modelled solution (0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M HF and 0.1 M trichloride of light rare earth elements (LREE) from La to Sm), all LREE would eventually be hosted by monazite at a temperature over 300 degrees C, with continuous introduction of H3PO4. Additionally, monazite of heavier LREE would precipitate earlier, indicating that the Ce- and La-enriched monazite at Bayan Obo was crystallized from Ce and La pre-enriched hydrothermal fluids. The fractionation among LREE occurred before the ore-forming fluids infiltrating ore-hosting dolomite. When CO2(aq) was introduced to the aqueous system (model 1), bastnaesite would eventually and completely replace monazite-(Ce). Cooling of hot hydrothermal fluids (>400 degrees C) would significantly promote this replacement, with only about one third the cost of CO(2)for the entire replacement when temperature dropped from 430 degrees C to 400 degrees C. Sole dolomite addition (model 2) would make bastnaesite replace monazite and then be replaced by parisite. The monazite-(Ce) replaced by associated bastnaesite and apatite is an indicator of very hot hydrothermal fluids (>400 degrees C) and specific dolomite/fluid ratios (e.g., initial dolomite at 1 kbar: 0.049-0.068 M and 0.083-0.105 M at 400 degrees C and 430 degrees C). In hot solution (>430 degrees C) that continuously interacts with dolomite, apatite precipitates predating the bastnaesite, but it behaves oppositely at <400 degrees C. The former paragenesis is in accord with petrography observed in this study. Some mineral pairs, such as monazite-(Ce)-fluorite and monazite-(Ce)-parisite would never co-precipitate at any calculated temperature or pressure. Therefore, their association implies multiphase hydrothermal activities. Pressure variation would have rather limited influence on the paragenesis of REE minerals. However, temperature and fluid composition variation (e.g., CO2(aq), dolomite, H3PO4) would cause significantly different associations between REE and gangue minerals.
KeywordREE precipitation thermodynamic modelling Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit
DOI10.3390/min10060495
Funding OrganizationNational Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China
WOS KeywordTEMPERATURE HEAT-CAPACITY ; RARE-EARTH-ELEMENTS ; ZIRCON U-PB ; INNER-MONGOLIA ; FLUID INCLUSION ; HYDROTHERMAL MOBILIZATION ; ORE-DEPOSIT ; CARBONATITE ; MONAZITE ; CRATON
Language英语
Funding ProjectNational Natural Science Foundation of China[41902066] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[41930430] ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China[Lzujbky-2019-pd06] ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China[2022019zr106]
Funding OrganizationNational Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China ; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China
WOS Research AreaMineralogy ; Mining & Mineral Processing
WOS SubjectMineralogy ; Mining & Mineral Processing
WOS IDWOS:000553925900001
PublisherMDPI
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.iggcas.ac.cn/handle/132A11/97577
Collection矿产资源研究院重点实验室
Corresponding AuthorLiu, Shang
Affiliation1.Lanzhou Univ, Sch Earth Sci, Lanzhou 730000, Peoples R China
2.Key Lab Mineral Resources Western China Gansu Pro, Lanzhou 730000, Peoples R China
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Tibetan Plateau Res, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geol & Geophys, Key Lab Mineral Resources, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China
5.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Earth & Planetary Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
6.Chinese Acad Sci, Innovat Acad Earth Sci, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Liu, Shang,Ding, Lin,Fan, Hong-Rui. Thermodynamic Constraints on REE Mineral Paragenesis in the Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe Deposit, China[J]. MINERALS,2020,10(6):21.
APA Liu, Shang,Ding, Lin,&Fan, Hong-Rui.(2020).Thermodynamic Constraints on REE Mineral Paragenesis in the Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe Deposit, China.MINERALS,10(6),21.
MLA Liu, Shang,et al."Thermodynamic Constraints on REE Mineral Paragenesis in the Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe Deposit, China".MINERALS 10.6(2020):21.
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